Atmospheric dispersion modeling is the mathematical simulation of how air pollutants disperse in the ambient atmosphere. It is performed with computer programs that solve the mathematical equations and algorithms which simulate the pollutant dispersion. The dispersion model are used to estimate or to predict the downwind concentration of air pollutants or toxins emitted from sources such as industrial plants, vehicular traffic or accidental chemical releases.

Such models are important to governmental agencies tasked with protecting and managing the ambient air quality. The models are typically employed to determine whether existing or proposed new industrial facilities are or will be in compliance with the National Ambient Air Standards (NAAQS) in the United States and other nations. The models also serve to assist in the design of effective control strategies to reduce emissions of harmful air pollutants.

Air dispersion models are also used by public safety responders and emergency management personnel for emergency planning of accidental chemical
releases. Models are used to determine the consequences of accidental releases of hazardous or toxic materials, Accidental releases may result fires, spills or explosions that involve hazardous materials, such as chemicals or radionuclides. The results of dispersion modeling, using worst case accident release terms source and meteorological conditions, can provide an estimate of location impacted areas, ambient concentrations, and be used to determine protective actions appropriate in the event a release occurs. Appropriate protective actions may include evacuation or shelter-in-place for persons in the downwind direction. At industrial facilities, this type of consequence assessment or emergency planning is required under the Clean air act (United States) (CAA) codified in part 60 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulation

The dispersion models vary depending on the mathematics used to develop the model, but all require the input of data that may include: